The native fish fauna of the Upper Colorado River Basin is one of the least protected yet most unique groups of fish in North America. With 64% of the fish fauna endemic, the Colorado River basin contains a higher percentage of endemic species than any other basin in North America.
Unfortunately, the future of many of these fishes is problematic. Already, four of the 14 native Upper Colorado River Basin fishes have been listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act, while others have been earmarked as “sensitive” due to their declining status.
The Colorado River cutthroat trout is designated as a species of special concern by several states and federal agencies. Today, only 14% of its historic range is currently occupied and only 8% of the historic range is occupied by unhybridized or ecologically significant populations. Extensive introductions of non-native salmonids over the last century, plus habitat degradation from human activities such as water withdrawal, land conversion, livestock grazing, road building, mining, and timber harvest, have fragmented and reduced populations.
These human activities have also disturbed populations of the sensitive warmwater fishes. Historically, these fishes were found in the mainstems and many medium-to-large tributaries within the Upper Colorado River Basin. However, water development projects, land use management and non-native species invasions have extirpated these fishes from approximately half of their historic range. Today, the flannelmouth sucker, bluehead sucker and roundtail chub occupy just 45%, 50% and 45% of their historical habitat, respectively.
The goal of NFWF's Upper Colorado River Native Fishes Conservation Program is to stabilize and increase the populations of four Colorado River native fishes -- Colorado River cutthroat trout, bluehead and flannelmouth sucker, and roundtail chub -- in order to prevent Federal listing as threatened or endangered. It focuses on connecting headwater streams where native Colorado River cutthroat trout occur in sympatry or close proximity with downstream populations of native warmwater fishes. By focusing on areas that have the potential to boost multiple species populations, the initiative increases the conservation benefit of each dollar spent.
Key conservation strategies for this program include:
- Manage non-native fishes, such as rainbow trout and white sucker, which hybridize with and prey upon native fishes;
- Restore natural water flow regimes by removing dams, or operating them to mimic natural stream flow, or by installing fish passage structures
- Conserve water to maintain adequate stream flows and improve water quality water through efficient irrigation technology and other strategies
- Reduce the impacts of land disturbance and erosion by implementing stormwater runoff and road construction and maintenance Best Management Practices
- Maintain water quality through proper treatment of energy development waste; and
- Mitigate the impacts of climate change through strategic planning.
Applicants should identify how their proposed activities fit within the framework outlined in the Upper Colorado River Native Fishes Business Plan and, specifically refer to the map.
Since the beginning of NFWF’s involvement in the region, native fish populations have experienced substantial increases: 3,900 Colorado Cutthroat trout, 4,600 bluehead suckers, 4,600 flannelmouth suckers and 4,600 roundtail chub.